EIR 2023

EIR 2023

The European Islamophobia Report (EIR), established in 2015, is the primary source for anti-racist activists, researchers, and policymakers on the development of Islamophobia in the region of Europe. The annual publication of the EIR allows different audiences to look at the state of the art as well as the development of Islamophobia in respective European nation-states. This makes it important for our authors to keep a clear and similar structure in all reports for the sake of comparing within countries as well as cross-countries.

Please note that the EIR is NOT an academic paper in a narrow sense nor is it a case study. Also, the national reports are NOT a chronological list of Islamophobic attacks that occurred from January to December in the respective country.

The authors should also read the previous years’ country reports and should not repeat the same historical background information in their report. Rather than looking at the historical background, the main attention should be given to developments and incidents in the year 2023. For 2023, please also consider including the implications of the Gaza conflict, the responses of the European governments to it, and the ramifications for Muslims.

As an author, we want you to write a report following the structure (i.e. titles and subtitles in the same order) mentioned below. Make sure to be able to gather as much information as possible on underreported themes based on interviews and data from NGOs or community organizers.



June 1, 2024: First draft submission

June 15, 2024: First feedback to authors

July 1, 2024: Second draft submission

August 1, 2024: Final submission

September 1, 2024: Final design

September 16, 2024: Publication of the 2023 EIR and launch of the panel ahead of the European Day Against Islamophobia on September 21.

Word count:  Please do not exceed the word count since it increases the cost of printing and proofreading.

Long reports: 6,000-7,000 words

Short reports: 3,000-4,000 words


The Structure of the Report

  • The report should have chapters and subchapters in the following order:
  1. Short biography

Includes institutional affiliation, highest degree, latest publication, email, and X-account account

  1. Executive summary in native language (between 250-300 words)
  2. Executive summary in English (between 250-300 words)

The executive summary must contain the most important figures and statistics available on anti-Muslim hate crimes, and refer to the most important events regarding legislation, political and public debates, and incidents that have occurred and may not be at the attention of the broader public. The executive summary shall give a good insight into the state of Islamophobia in 2023.

  1. Country Profile (see appendix)
  2. Discussion of Islamophobic Incidents and Discursive Events
    1. Physical and verbal attacks

In this section, the author should reveal the numbers of documented anti-Muslim hate crimes based on the statistics that are available by governmental as well as non-governmental institutions. The author should collect data from local as well as federal institutions to provide the most comprehensive picture possible. Exemplary cases should be revealed with pictures available (graffities, demolished objects, etc.).


    1. Employment

Here, the author should ask for data from state equality bodies as well as NGO’s and ideally also conduct group interviews with Muslims discriminated in the job market as to give voice to the excluded and marginalized.


    1. Education and Research

Authors should investigate the production of new education material in compulsory school, especially in text books of history, religion, and English to see, how Islam/Muslims are framed as well as knowledge production by powerful institutions that shape the discourse on Islam and Muslims.

    1. Politics

The authors should analyse material produced by political parties such as election campaigns, political programs, but also discuss personal utterings, etc. by single politicians, who talk about ‘Islam’/’Muslims’. Why have politicians used Islamophobic discourses? From which other policies of government would they distract the people? What are the implications of their claims? Who challenged the Islamophobic discourse? The authors should also focus on the discourses of far right parties and movements on Muslims in the country.


    1. Media

Which media events have focused on ‘Islam’/‘Muslims’ in an Islamophobic way? Which journalists are regularly reproducing Islamophobic stereotypes? Which journalists are challenging anti-Muslim racism? Which media outlets are regularly reproducing Islamophobic stereotypes and which are presenting fact-bound coverage?

    1. Justice system

Have there been any laws and regulations argued with Islamophobic arguments or any laws restricting the rights of Muslims in their religious lifestyle? Has legislation been legitimized by referring to Islamophobic narratives? If yes, who were the main driving actors as well as the main opponents, and why?


    1. Internet

Which websites and initiatives are regularly spreading Islamophobic stereotypes? Do watch bodies monitor them? Are they informing the wider public by being quoted and their stories being shared? Are certain politicians sharing this content?


  1. Central Figures in the Islamophobia Network

Which institutions and persons have fostered Islamophobic campaigns, stirred up debates, lobbied for laws, etc. Put a special focus on think tanks, NGOs, and people, who connect these organizations with state institutions. How are these initiatives financed? Who are these networks targeting and harming?


  1. Observed civil society and political assessment and initiatives

Here, we want to know, which initiatives are to be taken as best practice examples of how to combat anti-Muslim racism. Refer to initiatives on the local as well as federal level to show others, what can be done to not stay silent about anti-Muslim racism and how to effectively combat these.


  1. Conclusion and policy recommendations

Please conclude your report in one paragraph and list a number of recommendations for NGO’s as well as state institutions as how to tackle anti-Muslim racism, for the local as well as the federal level.


  1. Chronology of important Islamophobic incidents

Please list important Islamophobic incidents (also in terms of combatting Islamophobia) as follows: Day, Month, Incident

Generally: It is recommended to collect information via critically analyzing media reports, contacting offices and NGO’s that combat discrimination, and doing expert interviews with leading scholars, policymakers in the field, and the Muslim community.

Language: English (Executive Summary also in the native language).

Dissemination: Reports will be available in hard copy and accessible online via www.islamophobiareport.com.

The fees will be paid as soon as the report is published:

700 € for long reports

350 € for short reports

Report Features & Citation

We also ask you to follow citations guidelines as given here. This must be taken care of by all authors themselves. The EIR team cannot reorganise your citations. Reports will only be accepted when citation rules are taken care of properly.


  • Documented: It must present relevant evidence and data (tables and pictures in high resolution) to create a convincing argument.
  • Comprehensible: It must be understandable for a diverse audience from a wide array of professional and academic background.
  • Practical: It must set realistic goals and avoid unpractical road maps.


  • References: Chicago-style footnote should be used.
  • Writing Format: Times New Roman, 1, 5 spaced in 12-point font.
  • Main titles: 15 Times New Roman
  • Subtitles: 14 Times New Roman


Books: Author Name, The Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), page.

Edited Book: Author Name (ed.), The Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), page.

Articles in Journals: Author Name, “Article Title,” Journal Name, Vol. #, No. # (Month, Year), p. #.

Articles in Edited Books: Author Name, “Article Title,” Editor Name (ed.), The Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), page.

Articles in Newspapers, and Popular Magazines: Author Name, “Article Title,” Newspaper/ Magazine, Month Day, Year.

Articles/Pages on Web Sites: Author Name, “Article Title,” e-Journal /e-newspaper /Web Site Name, Vol. #, No. #, (Month Day, Year), retrieved Month Day, Year, from Web page URL.

Use of images and tables

Since EIR will be published in hardcopy it is important that pictures have a high resolution and that especially tables are colored. However, if you use pictures, images, or tables that are not yours, make sure you also have the right to reuse them and give correct citations.

On the other hand, we expect our Authors to use as many as possible images, tables, and data to increase the visual side of our report.


Appendix: Country profile structure


Type of Regime:

Form of Government:

Ruling Parties:

Opposition Parties:

Last Elections:

Total Population:

Major Language:

Official Religion:

Statistics on Islamophobia:

Statistics on Racism and Discrimination:

Major Religions (% of Population):

Muslim Population (% of Population):

Main Muslim Community Organizations:

Main NGOs Combating Islamophobia:

Far-Right Parties:

Far-Right Movements:

Far-Right Violent Organizations:

Limitations to Islamic Practices

– Hijab Ban:

– Halal Slaughter Ban:

– Minaret Ban:

– Circumcision Ban:

– Full-Face Veil Ban: